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Reducing Health Risks Associated with Type 2 Diabetes

June 2016

Type 2 diabetes is a condition that affects how the body metabolizes glucose.[1] For individuals with type 2 diabetes, the body either resists the effects of insulin or doesn’t produce enough insulin to maintain a normal blood sugar level. There are many serious health problems associated with type 2 diabetes, including heart attack, stroke, eye problems, and kidney disease. However, physical activity and weight control can help reduce the risks of these complications and improve quality of life.

Research shows that even small increases in physical activity can result in positive changes in BMI and waist circumference. In a study using type 2 diabetic patients with a BMI of ≥ 25, physical activity was measured to determine amount of time spent in different intensity levels.[2] Waist circumference and BMI were significantly associated with increased sedentary time and less light-intensity physical activity. Lower sedentary time and higher light-intensity activity time was associated with lower waist circumference. Lower average prolonged sedentary time was associated with a lower average BMI.

In another study assessing adults with prediabetes or early type 2 diabetes, physical activity was measured along with several other biomarkers.[3] When comparing activity levels, researchers found that higher activity levels were associated with lower triglycerides and insulin. In men, higher physical activity was also associated with lower fasting plasma glucose and systolic blood pressure.

A recent intervention study attempted to reduce long periods of sedentary time and increase light activity by focusing on small changes in physical activity.[4] Subjects would perform light walking for 3 minutes after every 30 minutes of sitting, perform simple resistance exercises for 3 minutes after every 30 minutes of sitting, or sit for an 8 hour period (control). Compared to the control group, both the resistance training and walking groups experienced decreased responses to postprandial glucose, insulin, and C-peptide. The resistance group also showed reduced response to triglycerides.

Type 2 diabetes impacts many lives globally. Reducing risk factors associated with the disease may help an individual’s quality of life and reduce the other risk factors associated with this disease.


Shrimp

Shrimp are abundant and widespread crustaceans that are caught or farmed throughout the world. Currently, approximately 55% of shrimp consumed worldwide are farm-raised, and of these, 75% are farmed in Asia.[5] Shrimp are low in calories and a very good source of protein, with 4 ounces of shrimp containing 112 calories and 26 grams of protein.

Shrimp are rich in the antioxidant mineral selenium.[6] Selenium deficiency has been shown to be a risk factor for heart failure and other cardiovascular problems. Although shrimp are high in cholesterol per serving, and may even appear on ‘Do not eat’ lists for individuals with high cholesterol, much of it is made up of healthy omega-3 fatty acids. Part of the total cholesterol number is composed of other sterols that have been shown have anti-inflammatory properties.

When it comes to purchasing shrimp, and most seafood in general, freshness is important for both taste and safety. While frozen shrimp can be stored for several weeks, fresh shrimp should typically be eaten the day of purchase, or within a day or two at most. Some indications of shrimp that are not fresh are dark spots, yellowing of the shell, and any ammonia type smell.

With a high amount of protein and antioxidants, shrimp are a very nutritious and accessible food for most people. They are also very versatile and can be prepared and enjoyed in a wide variety of dishes.


Tandoori Shrimp With Rice and Peas

1 lb large shrimp, peeled and deveined
1 cup plain yogurt
2 tsp garam masala
1/2 tsp cayenne pepper
1 cup long-grain white rice
1/2 cup frozen peas 1 carrot, grated
kosher salt and black pepper

Directions:
1. In a medium bowl, mix the shrimp with the yogurt, garam masala, and cayenne to coat. Cover and marinate in the refrigerator for at least 30 minutes and up to 12 hours.
2. Meanwhile, cook the rice according to the package directions, adding the peas and carrot in the last 5 minutes.
3. Heat broiler. Soak 8 wooden skewers in water for at least 10 minutes.
4. Thread the shrimp onto the skewers, season with 1/2 teaspoon salt and 1/4 teaspoon pepper, and broil until opaque, 4 to 5 minutes. Serve with the rice.

Recipe from http://www.realsimple.com/food-recipes/browse-all-recipes/tandoori-shrimp


Isometrics

Isometric exercise is a type of strength training where the muscle is contracted, but the joint angle and muscle length do not change. Some examples would include planks, wall sits, and a glute bridge hold. Depending on the population, one of the benefits to this type of training is that the joint is not taken through a full range of motion.

Isometric exercises may be beneficial for athletes with an injury that causes pain when performing normal exercises. In jumping athletes with patellar tendonitis, isometric exercises were used without changing normal practice and competition routines.[7] After 4 weeks, the athletes reported less pain while performing single leg squats. Being able to treat athletes without disrupting their in-season schedule is extremely beneficial.

Another group that may have difficulty in full range of motion are people with arthritis. In patients with knee osteoarthritis, 5 weeks of isometric quadricep exercises were performed.[8] Compared to the control group that performed no exercises, the isometric group showed greater quadricep strength, reduced pain, and improvements in function. A normal exercise program may have used more range of motion, causing more pain while performing those exercises.

Isometric exercises can be a useful mode of recovery for several different populations that are in need of joint treatment.


Health Matters is written by Lindsey Guthrie, MS, RD, LD/N and Tyler Guthrie, MS, CSCS.

References:

  1. Type 2 Diabetes. The Mayo Clinic. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-2-diabetes/home/ovc-20169860
  2. Healy GN, Winkler EA, Brakenridge CL, Reeves MM, Eakin EG. Accelerometer-Derived Sedentary and Physical Activity Time in Overweight/Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Cross-Sectional Associations with Cardiometabolic Biomarkers. PloS one. 2015; 10(3).
  3. Hamasaki, Hidetaka, et al. Daily physical activity assessed by a triaxial accelerometer is beneficially associated with waist circumference, serum triglycerides, and insulin resistance in Japanese patients with prediabetes or untreated early type 2 diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Research. 2015.
  4. Dempsey PC, Larsen RN, Sethi P, et al. Benefits for Type 2 Diabetes of Interrupting Prolonged Sitting With Brief Bouts of Light Walking or Simple Resistance Activities. Diabetes Care. 2016; 39(6): 964.
  5. Shrimp. The George Mateljan Foundation. http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=107
  6. Olmedo P, Hernandez AF, Pla A, et al. Determination of essential elements (copper, manganese, selenium and zinc) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk and nutritional assessment and mercury—selenium balance. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013; 62: 299.
  7. Van Ark M, Cook JL, Docking SI, et al. Do isometric and isotonic exercise programs reduce pain in athletes with patellar tendinopathy in-season? A randomised clinical trial. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2015.
  8. Anwer S, Alghadir A. Effect of Isometric Quadriceps Exercise on Muscle Strength, Pain, and Function in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Study. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 2015; 26(5): 745.

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